Pathologic Basis of Disease

This course defines Pathology as a discipline. It will outline multiple disease aetiologies that underlie fundamental pathobiologic processes (pathogenesis) and link these with alterations in structure and function (morphology and pathophysiology). Through clinical case illustrations these will be integrated with clinical presentations and outcomes (clinico-pathological correlation). Thus, it will provide the transition from the study of normal anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in Phase 1 to the specific disease entities of different body systems in Phase 2 semesters 3 to 6. The case-based teaching will provide early orientation to clinical sciences based on which Phase 3 clinical knowledge will evolve.

The course covers cellular changes due to multiple disease aetiologies, adaptations to cell injury and disease and organ-specific change in structure and function. Alterations in haemodynamic balance resulting in oedema, thrombosis, embolism and shock impacting multiple organs will be addressed. General aspects of neoplasia will include classification, terminology, predisposition, carcinogenesis, molecular basis and clinical manifestations. Tissue pathology related to hereditary diseases, infancy and childhood, autoimmunity, nutrition and environment will be highlighted. The course lays the ground for integrated teaching of organ-specific pathology in Semesters 4 to 6.

Course delivery is through lectures with a strong clinical context. Tutorials will be an opportunity for participative self-directed learning, identification of knowledge gaps and team-work. Practicals, using digital pathology, will provide skills of observation and recognition of diseased organs and tissues in a clinical scenario. Simulation will be an opportunity to assimilate the diagnostic role of Pathology in the clinical context. Seminars will provide an opportunity for creativity, analytical thinking, communication, skill development in information technology and for team collaboration. All aspects of learning will have an assessment component for the domains of knowledge, skills and competency.